A brief introduction to what (un-)sustainability could be in the context of ICT infrastructures, followed by a list of selected reading materials on the many aspects of sustainability in computing. I have good intentions to keep this updated.

Sustainable … what?

Your circular-economy electronics store around the corner. When do we get there?
Your circular-economy electronics store around the corner. When do we get there?

We’ve all been there: after 10 years of operation with pretty much no hiccups, your phone breaks and you think it’s finally time for a new device, not another repair. You walk through that busy shopping street (this story is set either before or after the COVID-19 apocalypse), passing by display windows with sustainable clothing and organic produce, till you reach the circular-economy electronics store. And now what? Too much of a choice. Do you take the elegant wooden design or do you go for steel? Luckily you don’t have to worry too much about the technical specs as they are all upgradable and fully modular devices. Neither do they weigh heavily on your consciousness – all those phones are produced from fairly mined and fairly traded materials, 99% recyclable, and they come with service contracts for free repairs and and software updates to guarantee an almost infinite lifespan.

Doesn’t sound familiar? Well, that’s the point. Why is it that sustainable products across many sectors are readily available, and producers and stores are happy to advertise these products as “sustainable”, “green”, “fair”, whatever, while in the ICT world the average consumer hardly thinks about these product qualities? What does it mean for a computer or a digital service to be sustainable anyway? Are there labels for sustainable ICT, or maybe something like the EC regulation on organic production and labelling of organic products, but for phones, printers and laptops that do not harm people and planet?1 And why are technology conferences full of talks that do not discuss the social and environmental impact of technology, or how to reduce these impacts?

What we vaguely understand is that the electronics sector has a huge footprint in terms of materials and energy consumption, causing environmental destruction and human exploitation in the production, use, and disposal of devices and services. In the context of sustainability, we also have to consider inequality and discrimination that is created or being promoted by the use of technology. And we know that these problems are expected to grow, proportionally to the growth of the ICT sector. Fortunately, there are also positive stories – the Fairphone and some other products, for example, ranked pretty high in the 2017 Greenpeace Guide to Greener Electronics, and a 2020 episode of Eco Africa - The Environment Magazine mentions positive developments in tackling e-waste.

Overall, I am convinced that consumers and engineers still need to learn a lot about sustainability aspects of electronics products. But the one question that all domains of our economy have to address, rather sooner than later, is that of defining the means by which we assess whether a technology (or anything else) will bring us forward as a society, and which allows us to justify (or not) a investment of scarce resources within the limits of the planetary boundaries, beyond the paradigm of generating profits and perpetual growth. Or, as Jason Hickel puts it:

That is, instead of either ignoring harmful impacts or inflationary sticking a “sustainable” sticker on everything, we must ask what it is that we want to sustain, and for whom. It is very well possible that technologies cannot actually be (un-)sustainable by itself, simply because technology is not a vital societal function in itself. Optimising technology to minimise emissions or material consumption is all cool and important, but neither does it result in “sustainable technology,” nor can it be the research and development target of our industry sector.

As a society, however, we can sustain ourselves, and technology can be the tool to achieve this sustainability in many domains. To get there, we must ask ourselves how our technology work aims to support people and land in times of the climate emergency, the ecological breakdown, and a myriad of other social and humanitarian crisis. Does our technology support vital societal functions? Does it do so inclusively? Is it the cheapest and most impactful way to do so? How does it address potential rebound effects? Does our work strive to end fossil fuel extraction and colonialism, and possibly growth-based economics altogether?

These are the questions of our times, the ones everyone must consider. As engineers we are actively shaping the future of humanity, we work in a highly political domain, and thus it must be our obligation to develop strong ethics and to strive for the wellbeing of every human being, present and future.

How I got there

Speaking on Sustainable ICT at QA&Test, October 2019 in Bilbao.
Speaking on Sustainable ICT at QA&Test, October 2019 in Bilbao.

In late 2019 I was asked by the QA&Test2 conferences to give a keynote on this topic. Apparently I’ve been ranting enough about the devastation we cause with technology deployment, and people wanted to know what it is all about. I got scared and intrigued at once. I never heard a talk to outline the dirty downside of ICT at an ICT conference, and now I was to be the one to give such a talk. Out came a one-hour presentation with the title “Defining Environmental Sustainability in ICT”, which was followed by a long Q&A and many discussions with conference participants afterwards, over a beer, or at the breakfast table the next mornings. Apparently I had struck a responsive chord with some people, though we all couldn’t come up with easy answers about how to resolve this, at least not in the context of our current economy. But QA&Test followed up on the interest in the topic, and in 2020 we invited Tapani Jokinen to talk about sustainable design for electronics products.

I had heard about Tapani’s work before already, and finally followed one of his workshops at an extraordinary event in that pandemic summer of 2020: the first SICT: Summer School on Sustainable ICT3 at the University of Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. SICT was extraordinary in at least two aspects: it was the first time for me to meet a room full of people who all shared concerns about (different) sustainability aspects of the ICT, and it was the first real-life event I attended since the first wave of the pandemic in Europe. Personally I dubbed this iteration of SICT the “summer school on sustainable mining” – yes, I was hoping for more of a focus on software, services and security – but nevertheless it was eye-opening. A few days after that week of lectures, workshops and discussions, we started compiling a zotero library4 on sustainable ICT, to give people an entry point to this field of research. Below you find a selection of key publications from this bibliography, followed by the full list.

Please get in touch if you feel that something is missing. I do not claim that these resources are useful for everyone, or that they represent the the most influential works of sustainability research in ICT. Yet, it’s a collection of literature that helped me personally to find my way into this field, and I very much hope that it is useful for you.

Key Publications

Start Here

  • Cook, G., & Jardim, E. (2017). “Guide to Greener Electronics 2017.” Greenpeace. Retrieved from https://www.greenpeace.org/usa/reports/greener-electronics-2017/
    Why read it? The report gives a concise overview of the different facets of sustainability in the context of electronics products. A range of companies are ranked along a spectrum of criteria that you might not have thought of before.
  • Gossart, C. (2015). “Rebound effects and ICT : a review of the literature.” ICT innovations for sustainability, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-09228-7_26
    Why read it? Across sectors and including ICT, we have witnessed important gains in materials and energy efficiency over the last years. Importantly, these gains did not lead to a global drop in resource usage or emissions, rather to the contrary, overall consumption is increasing. This paper discusses the “rebound effects” that lead to increased consumption when consumption becomes effectively cheaper.

Impact & Life-Cycle Assessment

  • Lange, S., Pohl, J., & Santarius, T. (2020). “Digitalization and energy consumption. Does ICT reduce energy demand?” Ecological Economics, 176, 106760. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2020.106760
    Why read it? “These results can be explained by four insights from ecological economics: (a) physical capital and energy are complements in the ICT sector, (b) increases in energy efficiency lead to rebound effects, (c) ICT cannot solve the difficulty of decoupling economic growth from energy, (d) ICT services are relatively energy intensive and come on top of former production.”
  • Krumay, B., & Brandtweiner, R. (2016). “Measuring the environmental impact of ICT hardware.” International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, 11(6), 1064–1076. doi:10.2495/SDP-V11-N6-1064-1076
    Why read it? This work outlines various approaches to measure impacts of ICT hardware as well as their application in practice. The authors identify different indicators and brings these indicators to to the attention of experts from companies, to assess these approaches in terms of practicability, significance and value for practice.
  • Yi, L., & Thomas, H. R. (2007). “A review of research on the environmental impact of e-business and ICT.” Environment International, 33(6), 841–849. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2007.03.015
    Why read it? While already from 2007, this paper provides a comprehensive review of the state of the art of how e-business/ICT affects the environment. The paper explains why traditional assessment approaches are insufficient to accommodate the digital technology revolution and cannot accommodate the challenge of measuring the impacts of ICT on environmental sustainability.

Sustainable Materials for ICT

  • World Economic Forum. (2019). “A New Circular Vision for Electronics Time for a Global Reboot,” (January), 24–24. Retrieved from http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_A_New_Circular_Vision_for_Electronics.pdf
    Why read it? “In the mining, manufacturing, transport, retail, consumption and disposal of electronics, there are vast amounts of wasted resources and the system has several negative impacts. Each year, approximately 50 million tonnes of electronic and electrical waste (e-waste) are produced, equivalent in weight to all commercial aircraft ever built; only 20% is formally recycled. If nothing is done, the amount of waste will more than double by 2050, to 120 million tonnes annually. […] There is also an opportunity to build a more circular electronics system, one in which resources are not extracted, used and wasted, but valued and re-used in ways that create decent, sustainable jobs.”
  • Friederich, P., Fediai, A., Kaiser, S., Konrad, M., Jung, N., & Wenzel, W. (2019). “Toward Design of Novel Materials for Organic Electronics.” Advanced Materials, 31(26), 1808256. doi:10.1002/adma.201808256
    Why read it? This article gives a bit of an outlook on the search for new organic materials to build electronic components. These materials have potential to be the basis of more sustainable ICT ecosystems. They are already used in applications, such as displays in mobile devices, and being intensely researched for other purposes, such as organic photovoltaics, large-area devices, and thin-film transistors.
  • Wäger, P. A., Hischier, R., & Widmer, R. (2015). “The Material Basis of ICT.” In L. M. Hilty & B. Aebischer (Eds.), ICT Innovations for Sustainability (Vol. 310, pp. 209–221). Cham: Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-09228-7_12
    Why read it? Storing and processing information will always need a material basis. This paper studies both the “upstream (from mining to the product) and the downstream (from the product to final disposal) implications of the composition of an average Swiss end-of-life (EoL) consumer ICT device from a materials perspective.”

Operational Impact of ICT

  • Freitag, C., Berners-Lee, M., Widdicks, K., Knowles, B., Blair, G., & Friday, A. (2021). “The climate impact of ICT: A review of estimates, trends and regulations.” arXiv:2102.02622 [physics]. Retrieved from http://arxiv.org/abs/2102.02622
    Why read it? A comprehensive and up-to-date survey of ICT’s current and projected climate impacts. “There are pronounced differences between available projections of ICT’s future emissions. These projections are dependent on underlying assumptions that are sometimes, but not always, made explicit - and we explore these in the report. Whatever assumptions analysts take, they agree that ICT will not reduce its emissions without a major concerted effort involving broad political and industrial action.”
  • Pärssinen, M., Kotila, M., Cuevas, R., Phansalkar, A., & Manner, J. (2018). “Environmental impact assessment of online advertising.” Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 73, 177–200. doi:10.1016/j.eiar.2018.08.004
    Why read it? “The online advertising ecosystem resides in the core of the Internet, and it is the sole source of funding for many online services. Therefore, it is an essential factor in the analysis of the Internet’s energy footprint. As a result, in 2016, online advertising consumed 20-282 TWh of energy. In the same year, the total infrastructure consumption ranged from 791 to 1334 TWh. With extrapolated 2016 input factor values without uncertainties, online advertising consumed 106 TWh of energy and the infrastructure 1059 TWh.”
  • Belkhir, L., & Elmeligi, A. (2018). “Assessing ICT global emissions footprint: Trends to 2040 & recommendations.” Journal of Cleaner Production, 177, 448–463. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.12.239
    Why read it? This is probably the most rigorous analysis to assess the global carbon footprint of the overall ICT industry, including the contribution from the main consumer devices, the data centres and communication networks. The paper makes predictions, suggesting that “if unchecked, ICT greenhouse gas emissions relative contribution could grow from roughly 1–1.6% in 2007 to exceed 14% of the 2016-level worldwide greenhouse gas emissions by 2040, accounting for more than half of the current relative contribution of the whole transportation sector.”

Sustainable Software

  • Lago, P., Verdecchia, R., Condori-Fernandez, N., Rahmadian, E., Sturm, J., van Nijnanten, T., Bosma, R., et al. (2021). “Designing for Sustainability: Lessons Learned from Four Industrial Projects.” In A. Kamilaris, V. Wohlgemuth, K. Karatzas, & I. N. Athanasiadis (Eds.), Advances and New Trends in Environmental Informatics (pp. 3–18). Cham: Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-61969-5_1
    Why read it? “We report the results of practitioners applying the Sustainability-Quality Assessment Framework (SAF) to four industrial cases. The results show that the SAF helps practitioners in (1) creating a sustainability mindset in their practices, (2) uncovering the relevant sustainability-quality concerns for the software project at hand, and (3) reasoning about the inter-dependencies and trade-offs of such concerns as well as the related short- and long-term implications. Next to improvements for the SAF, the main lesson for us as researchers is the missing explicit link between the SAF and the (technical) architecture design.”
  • Lago, P., Koçak, S. A., Crnkovic, I., & Penzenstadler, B. (2015). “Framing sustainability as a property of software quality.” Communications of the ACM, 58(10), 70–78. doi:10.1145/2714560
    Why read it? A short paper to assess the environmental dimension of software performance on two concrete examples. The assessment framework helps draw a more comprehensive picture of the relevant quality dimensions and, as a result, improve decision making.

Sustainable Security

  • (missing reference)
    Why read it? Keeping a device or a software secure over a long period of time – think of decades – is difficult, mostly because the techniques used in the product will be outdated and known to be vulnerable to malicious intruders rather soon. This paper outlines a path towards designing products that remain dependable for the future.

Crypto Currencies & Bitcoin

  • Jiang, S., Li, Y., Lu, Q., Hong, Y., Guan, D., Xiong, Y., & Wang, S. (2021). “Policy assessments for the carbon emission flows and sustainability of Bitcoin blockchain operation in China.” Nature Communications, 12(1), 1938. doi:10.1038/s41467-021-22256-3
    Why read it? “By investigating carbon emission flows of Bitcoin blockchain operation in China with a simulation-based Bitcoin blockchain carbon emission model, we find that without any policy interventions, the annual energy consumption of the Bitcoin blockchain in China is expected to peak in 2024 at 296.59 Twh and generate 130.50 million metric tons of carbon emission correspondingly.”
  • de Vries, A. (2021). “Bitcoin boom: What rising prices mean for the network’s energy consumption.” Joule, 5(3), 509–513. doi:10.1016/j.joule.2021.02.006
    Why read it? “These estimates reveal that the record-breaking surge in Bitcoin price at the start of 2021 could result in the network consuming as much energy as all data centers globally, with an associated carbon footprint matching London’s footprint size. Beyond these environmental impacts, the production of specialised mining devices might exacerbate the global shortage of chips, which could effect the ability to work from home, the economic recovery after the COVID-19 crisis, and the production of electric vehicles.The increasing popularity of mining in countries like Iran could even threaten international safety.”
  • Köhler, S., & Pizzol, M. (2019). “Life Cycle Assessment of Bitcoin Mining.” Environmental Science & Technology, 53(23), 13598–13606. doi:10.1021/acs.est.9b05687
    Why read it? “This study applied the well-established Life Cycle Assessment methodology to an in-depth analysis of drivers of past and future environmental impacts of the Bitcoin mining network. It was found that, in 2018, the Bitcoin network consumed 31.29 TWh with a carbon footprint of 17.29 MtCO2-eq, an estimate that is in the lower end of the range of results from previous studies. The main drivers of such impact were found to be the geographical distribution of miners and the efficiency of the mining equipment. In contrast to previous studies, it was found that the service life, production, and end-of-life of such equipment had only a minor contribution to the total impact, and that while the overall hashrate is expected to increase, the energy consumption and environmental footprint per TH mined is expected to decrease.”

Sustainability and Artificial Intelligence

  • Strubell, E., Ganesh, A., & McCallum, A. (2019). “Energy and Policy Considerations for Deep Learning in NLP.” arXiv:1906.02243 [cs]. Retrieved from http://arxiv.org/abs/1906.02243
    Why read it? This paper quantifies the approximate financial and environmental costs of training a variety of recently successful neural network models for natural language processing (NLP). The authors further propose actionable recommendations to reduce costs and improve equity in NLP research and practice.
  • Buolamwini, J., & Gebru, T. (2018). “Gender Shades: Intersectional Accuracy Disparities in Commercial Gender Classification.” Proceedings of the 1st Conference on Fairness, Accountability and Transparency. Retrieved from http://proceedings.mlr.press/v81/buolamwini18a.html
    Why read it? A groundbreaking paper showing facial recognition to be inaccurate at identifying women and people of colour; the use of these technologies may therefore end up discriminating against certain groups of society.

Electronic Waste Management

  • Rosa, P., Sassanelli, C., & Terzi, S. (2019). “Circular Business Models versus circular benefits: An assessment in the waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipments sector.” Journal of Cleaner Production, 231, 940–952. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.05.310
    Why read it? This paper presents a very recent overview of Circular Business Models in electronics and comes with four use cases from the electronic waste sector, which demonstrate how to link business models with Circular Economy benefits.
  • Cucchiella, F., D’Adamo, I., Lenny Koh, S. C., & Rosa, P. (2015). “Recycling of WEEEs: An economic assessment of present and future e-waste streams.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 51, 263–272. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2015.06.010
    Why read it? “Waste from Electric and Electronic Equipments (WEEEs) is currently considered to be one of the fastest growing waste streams in the world, with an estimated growth rate going from 3% up to 5% per year. The recycling of Electric or electronic waste (E-waste) products could allow the diminishing use of virgin resources in manufacturing and, consequently, it could contribute in reducing the environmental pollution. […] A discussion of the economic assessment results shows the main challenges in the recycling sector and streamlines some concrete solutions.”

Full Bibliography

[Yes, this still needs to be cleaned up and checked for consistency. As I stated above, I’m committed to keep this post up to date.]

  1. Birhane, A., Steed, R., Ojewale, V., Vecchione, B., & Raji, I. D. (2024, January). “AI auditing: The Broken Bus on the Road to AI Accountability.” arXiv. Retrieved from http://arxiv.org/abs/2401.14462
  2. Cologna, V., Mede, N. G., Berger, S., Besley, J. C., Brick, C., Joubert, M., Maibach, E., et al. (2024). “Trust in scientists and their role in society across 67 countries.” Open Science Framework. doi:10.31219/osf.io/6ay7s
  3. Muldoon, J., Cant, C., Wu, B., & Graham, M. (2024). “A typology of artificial intelligence data work.” Big Data & Society, 11(1), 20539517241232632. doi:10.1177/20539517241232632
  4. Rone, J. (2023). “The shape of the cloud: Contesting date centre construction in North Holland.” New Media & Society, 146144482211459. doi:10.1177/14614448221145928
  5. Park, M., Leahey, E., & Funk, R. J. (2023). “Papers and patents are becoming less disruptive over time.” Nature, 613(7942), 138–144. doi:10.1038/s41586-022-05543-x
  6. Urai, A. E., & Kelly, C. (2023). “Rethinking academia in a time of climate crisis.” eLife, 12, e84991. doi:10.7554/eLife.84991
  7. Villamayor-Tomas, S., & Muradian, R. (Eds.). (2023). “The Barcelona School of Ecological Economics and Political Ecology: A Companion in Honour of Joan Martinez-Alier.” Studies in Ecological Economics (Vol. 8). Cham: Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978-3-031-22566-6
  8. Becker, C. (2023). Insolvent: how to reorient computing for just sustainability. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.
  9. Brembs, B., Lenardic, A., & Chan, L. (2023). “Mastodon: a move to publicly owned scholarly knowledge.” Nature, 614(7949), 624–624. doi:10.1038/d41586-023-00486-3
  10. Kuhlicke, C., Madruga De Brito, M., Bartkowski, B., Botzen, W., Doğulu, C., Han, S., Hudson, P., et al. (2023). “Spinning in circles? A systematic review on the role of theory in social vulnerability, resilience and adaptation research.” Global Environmental Change, 80, 102672. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2023.102672
  11. Gössling, S., & Humpe, A. (2023). “Millionaire spending incompatible with 1.5 °C ambitions.” Cleaner Production Letters, 4, 100027. doi:10.1016/j.clpl.2022.100027
  12. Redmiles, E. M., Bennett, M. M., & Kohno, T. (2023). “Power in Computer Security and Privacy: A Critical Lens.” IEEE Security & Privacy, 21(2), 48–52. doi:10.1109/MSEC.2023.3238591
  13. Verdecchia, R., Sallou, J., & Cruz, L. (2023). “A Systematic Review of Green AI.” doi:10.48550/ARXIV.2301.11047
  14. Lange, S., Santarius, T., Dencik, L., Diez, T., Ferreboeuf, H., Hankey, S., Hilbeck, A., et al. (2023). “Digital Reset, Redirecting Technologies for the Deep Sustainability Transformation.” oekom Verlag. doi:10.14512/9783987262463
  15. Kaika, M., Varvarousis, A., Demaria, F., & March, H. (2023). “Urbanizing degrowth: Five steps towards a Radical Spatial Degrowth Agenda for planning in the face of climate emergency.” Urban Studies, 004209802311622. doi:10.1177/00420980231162234
  16. Broussard, M. (2023). More than a glitch: confronting race, gender, and ability bias in tech. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.
  17. Ibrahim, Y. (2023). “The Science and Politics of Climate Engineering—Social Science Perspectives.” Minerva. doi:10.1007/s11024-023-09488-x
  18. Kikstra, J. S., & Waidelich, P. (2023). “Strong climate action is worth it.” Nature Climate Change. doi:10.1038/s41558-023-01635-2
  19. Gandhi, A., Lee, D., Liu, Z., Mu, S., Zadok, E., Ghose, K., Gopalan, K., et al. (2023). “Metrics for Sustainability in Data Centers.” ACM SIGEnergy Energy Informatics Review, 3(3), 40–46. doi:10.1145/3630614.3630622
  20. Santarius, T., Bieser, J. C. T., Frick, V., Höjer, M., Gossen, M., Hilty, L. M., Kern, E., et al. (2023). “Digital sufficiency: conceptual considerations for ICTs on a finite planet.” Annals of Telecommunications, 78(5-6), 277–295. doi:10.1007/s12243-022-00914-x
  21. Thierry, A., Horn, L., Von Hellermann, P., & Gardner, C. J. (2023). “‘No research on a dead planet’: preserving the socio-ecological conditions for academia.” Frontiers in Education, 8, 1237076. doi:10.3389/feduc.2023.1237076
  22. Bremer, C., Gujral, H., Lin, M., Hinkers, L., Becker, C., & Coroamă, V. C. (2023). “How Viable are Energy Savings in Smart Homes? A Call to Embrace Rebound Effects in Sustainable HCI.” ACM Journal on Computing and Sustainable Societies, 1(1), 1–24. doi:10.1145/3608115
  23. Siemers, W., Sallou, J., & Cruz, L. (2023). “The Two Faces of AI in Green Mobile Computing: A Literature Review.” doi:10.48550/ARXIV.2308.04436
  24. Forster, P. M., Smith, C. J., Walsh, T., Lamb, W. F., Lamboll, R., Hauser, M., Ribes, A., et al. (2023). “Indicators of Global Climate Change 2022: annual update of large-scale indicators of the state of the climate system and human influence.” Earth System Science Data, 15(6), 2295–2327. doi:10.5194/essd-15-2295-2023
  25. Pirson, T., Delhaye, T. P., Pip, A. G., Le Brun, G., Raskin, J.-P., & Bol, D. (2023). “The Environmental Footprint of IC Production: Review, Analysis, and Lessons From Historical Trends.” IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing, 36(1), 56–67. doi:10.1109/TSM.2022.3228311
  26. Bianchini, S., Damioli, G., & Ghisetti, C. (2023). “The environmental effects of the ‘twin’ green and digital transition in European regions.” Environmental and Resource Economics, 84(4), 877–918. doi:10.1007/s10640-022-00741-7
  27. Vogel, J., & Hickel, J. (2023). “Is green growth happening? An empirical analysis of achieved versus Paris-compliant CO2–GDP decoupling in high-income countries.” The Lancet Planetary Health, 7(9), e759–e769. doi:10.1016/S2542-5196(23)00174-2
  28. Silvi, R., Nielsen, C., & Pia, A. (2023). “From Insights to Business Model Innovation and Results: Using the Digital Transformation Canvas.” Journal of Business Models, 11(3), 30–45. Retrieved from https://journals.aau.dk/index.php/JOBM/article/view/8120
  29. Borgermann, N., Schmidt, A., & Dobbelaere, J. (2022). “Preaching water while drinking wine: Why universities must boost climate action now.” One Earth, 5(1), 18–21. doi:10.1016/j.oneear.2021.12.015
  30. Feltrin, L., Mah, A., & Brown, D. (2022). “Noxious deindustrialization: Experiences of precarity and pollution in Scotland’s petrochemical capital.” Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space, 23996544211056328. doi:10.1177/23996544211056328
  31. Lenton, T. M., Benson, S., Smith, T., Ewer, T., Lanel, V., Petykowski, E., Powell, T. W. R., et al. (2022). “Operationalising Positive Tipping Points towards Global Sustainability.” Global Sustainability, 1–32. doi:10.1017/sus.2021.30
  32. Thomas, L. (2022). The intersectional environmentalist: how to dismantle systems of oppression to protect people + planet (First.). New York: Voracious/ Little, Brown and Company.
  33. Hickel, J., Dorninger, C., Wieland, H., & Suwandi, I. (2022). “Imperialist appropriation in the world economy: Drain from the global South through unequal exchange, 1990–2015.” Global Environmental Change, 73, 102467. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2022.102467
  34. Bruckner, B., Hubacek, K., Shan, Y., Zhong, H., & Feng, K. (2022). “Impacts of poverty alleviation on national and global carbon emissions.” Nature Sustainability. doi:10.1038/s41893-021-00842-z
  35. Cucchietti, F., Moll, J., Esteban, M., Reyes, P., & García Calatrava, C. (2022). “Carbolytics, an analysis of the carbon costs of online tracking.” Retrieved from http://carbolytics.org/report.html
  36. Abazeri, M. (2022). “Decolonial feminisms and degrowth.” Futures, 136, 102902. doi:10.1016/j.futures.2022.102902
  37. Aitken, R. (2022). “Decarbonising compute: a moral and technological imperative.” ITNOW, 63(4), 24–25. doi:10.1093/itnow/bwab106
  38. Booth, J. (2022). “Cleaner, greener data centres.” ITNOW, 63(4), 18–20. doi:10.1093/itnow/bwab103
  39. Borowiec, D., Harper, R. R., & Garraghan, P. (2022). “The environmental consequence of deep learning.” ITNOW, 63(4), 10–11. doi:10.1093/itnow/bwab099
  40. Lannelongue, L. (2022). “Carbon footprint: the (not so) hidden cost of high performance computing.” ITNOW, 63(4), 12–13. doi:10.1093/itnow/bwab100
  41. Kumar, S. (2022). “Embracing Green Computing in Molecular Phylogenetics.” Molecular Biology and Evolution, 39(3), msac043. doi:10.1093/molbev/msac043
  42. Grealey, J., Lannelongue, L., Saw, W.-Y., Marten, J., Méric, G., Ruiz-Carmona, S., & Inouye, M. (2022). “The Carbon Footprint of Bioinformatics.” (S. Kumar, Ed.)Molecular Biology and Evolution, 39(3), msac034. doi:10.1093/molbev/msac034
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Last modified: 2022-09-14 11:21:57 +0200

  1. Yes, I am aware of the EU Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive. As of 2021, 80% of WEEEs remain untreated globally. 

  2. I am a member of the Technical Committee of QA&Test, so this was an “internal” keynote. 

  3. I became a co-organiser of the 2021 edition of the SICT summer school. 

  4. Here is a BibTeX file for you: sustainable-ict.bib